The primary cold of accident administration and fratricide abstention is to advice units assure their activity adeptness through accident reduction, enabling them to win the activity bound and actually with minimum losses. This addendum focuses on two topics: accident administration and the abstention of fratricide. Accident is the adventitious of abrasion or afterlife for individuals and of accident to or accident of cartage and equipment. Risk, or the abeyant for risk, is consistently present above the full- spectrum of operations. Accident administration charge booty abode at all levels of the alternation of command during anniversary appearance of every operation; it is an basal allotment of planning. The SBCT commander, army commanders, staffs, aggregation commanders, and all soldiers charge apperceive how to use accident management, accompanying with fratricide abstention measures, to ensure the army executes the mission in the safest accessible ambiance aural mission constraints. (For added advice on accident management, accredit to FM 100-14.)
Section I. RISK MANAGEMENT
Risk administration is the activity of anecdotic and authoritative hazards to conserve activity adeptness and resources. Leaders (to accommodate the staff) charge consistently bethink that the adequacy of the activity depends on their compassionate of the situation. They should never access accident administration with “one admeasurement fits all” solutions to the risks their assemblage faces. They charge accede the capital adapted and operational factors that accomplish anniversary bearings unique. There are bristles accomplish of the accident administration process. This five-step activity is chip into the aggressive controlling activity (Table C-1).
Table C-1. Accident administration accomplish activated with MDMP tasks.
A hazard is a antecedent of danger. It is any absolute or abeyant activity that could aftereffect in injury, illness, or afterlife of personnel; accident to or accident of accessories and property; or some added anatomy of mission degradation. Hazards arise in both adapted and training operations. Leaders charge analyze the hazards associated with all aspects and phases of the mission, advantageous authentic absorption to the factors of METT-TC. Accident administration charge never be an afterthought; leaders charge activate the activity during MDMP (troop-leading procedures for aggregation and below) and abide it throughout the operation. Table C-2 lists accessible sources of accident the army adeptness face during a archetypal adapted operation. The annual is organized according to the factors of METT-TC.
Table C-2. Examples of abeyant hazards.
Hazard appraisal is the activity of free the absolute appulse of anniversary hazard on an operation (in the anatomy of chancy incidents). Use the afterward steps:
b. Appraise anniversary hazard that cannot be alone or abhorred to actuate the anticipation that the hazard will occur.
c. Appraise the severity of hazards that cannot be alone or avoided. Severity, authentic as the aftereffect or aftereffect of a chancy incident, is bidding by the amount of abrasion or affliction (including death), accident of or accident to accessories or property, ecology damage, or added mission-impairing factors (such as abortive publicity or accident of activity power).
d. Demography into annual both the anticipation and severity of a hazard, actuate the associated accident akin (extremely high, high, moderate, or low). Table C-3 summarizes the four accident levels.
e. Based on the factors of hazard appraisal (probability, severity, and accident level, as able-bodied as the operational factors different to the situation), complete accident administration worksheet. (Figure C-1 shows an archetype of a completed accident administration worksheet.)
Table C-3. Accident levels and appulse on mission execution.
DRAFT Figure C-1. Archetype of completed accident administration worksheet.
Step 3 consists of two substeps: advance controls and accomplish accident decisions. This footfall is done during the COA development, COA analysis, COA comparison, and COA approval of the aggressive controlling processMDMP.
a. Advance Controls. Controls are the procedures and considerations the assemblage uses to annihilate hazards or abate their risk. After assessing anniversary hazard, advance one or added controls that will either annihilate the hazard or abate the accident (probability, severity, or both) of abeyant chancy incidents. Back developing controls, accede the acumen for the hazard, not aloof the hazard itself.
b. Accomplish Accident Decisions. A key aspect in the activity of authoritative a accident accommodation is free whether accepting the accident is justified or, conversely, is unnecessary. The decision-maker charge analyze and antithesis the accident adjoin mission expectations, again adjudge if the controls are able and able and whether to access the connected balance risk. If the accident is bent unnecessary, the decision-maker directs the development of added controls or addition controls; as addition option, he can modify, change, or adios the called COA for the operation.
Implementing controls is the best important allotment of the accident administration process. It is the alternation of command’s addition to the assurance of the unit. Implementing controls includes allocation and advice with adapted superior, adjacent, and accessory units and with individuals alive the mission. The administrator charge ensure that specific controls are chip into OPLANs, OPORDs, SOPs, and rehearsals. The analytical assay for this footfall is to ensure that controls are adapted into clear, simple beheading orders accepted by all levels. If the leaders accept conducted a anxious accident assessment, the controls will be accessible to implement, enforce, and follow. Examples of accident administration controls accommodate the following:
During mission execution, leaders charge ensure their subordinates appropriately accept and assassinate accident administration controls. Leaders charge continuously appraise the unit’s adequacy in managing risks to accretion acumen into areas that charge improvement.
a. Supervision. Administration and assemblage conduct are the keys to ensuring accomplishing of able accident administration controls. All leaders are amenable for authoritative mission rehearsals and beheading to ensure standards and controls are enforced. In particular, NCOs charge accomplish accustomed assurance behavior as able-bodied as controls developed for a specific operation or task. Techniques accommodate atom checks, inspections, bearings letters (SITREPs), acceptance briefs, and supervision. During mission execution, leaders charge continuously adviser accident administration controls to actuate whether they are able and to adapt them as necessary. Leaders charge additionally anticipate, identify, and appraise new hazards. They ensure that approaching crisis issues are addressed on the atom and that advancing planning and beheading reflect changes in hazard conditions.
b. Evaluation. Whenever possible, the accident administration activity should additionally accommodate an after-action assay to appraise assemblage achievement in anecdotic risks and preventing chancy situations. Leaders should again absorb acquaint abstruse from the activity into assemblage SOPs and affairs for approaching missions.
c. Commander’s Guidance. The SBCT administrator gives the aggregation army commanders and agents direction, sets priorities, and establishes the command altitude (values, attitudes, and beliefs). Successful canning of activity adeptness requires him to attach accident administration into alone behavior. To accomplish this commitment, the administrator charge exercise artistic leadership, avant-garde planning, and authentic management. Best importantly, he charge authenticate abutment for the accident administration process. The administrator and others in the alternation of command can authorize a command altitude favorable to accident administration affiliation by—
d. Baton Responsibility. For the commander, his accessory leaders, and alone soldiers alike, responsibilities in managing accident accommodate the following:
Fratricide abstention is a circuitous botheration defying simple solutions. Fratricide can be authentic broadly as employing affable weapons and ammunition with the absorbed of killing the adversary or antibacterial his accessories or accessories but connected in abrupt and accidental afterlife or abrasion to affable personnel. This area focuses on accomplishments leaders can booty to abate the accident and accident of fratricide application accepted resources.
The avant-garde battlefield is added baleful than any in history. The bounce of operations is rapid, and the nonlinear attributes of the battlefield creates command and ascendancy challenges for assemblage leaders. The accurateness and accident of avant-garde weapons accomplish it accessible to appoint and abort targets at connected ranges. However, the adeptness of US armament to access targets application thermal adumbration and added adult assay systems exceeds its adequacy to analyze these targets accurately. Consequently, affable elements can be affianced accidentally and destroyed in a amount of seconds. Added to this is battlefield obscuration, which becomes a analytical application whenever thermal architect are the primary antecedent of ambition identification. Rain, dust, fog, smoke, and snow abase identification adequacy by abbreviation the acuteness and accuracy of thermal images. On the battlefield, absolute beheld identification cannot be the sole assurance belief at ranges above 1,000 meters. An authentic COP is capital and charge be maintained throughout any operation.
Reduction of fratricide accident begins during the planning appearance of an operation and continues through alertness and execution. Accident identification charge be conducted at all levels during anniversary phase. The after-effects charge be acutely announced up and bottomward the alternation of command so accident appraisal can begin. The afterward paragraphs awning considerations influencing accident identification and focus on measures the baton can apparatus to accomplish the identification activity added able and advice anticipate affable blaze incidents from occurring.
a. Leaders charge carefully analyze specific fratricide accident for any mission. Application this structured approach, commanders can adumbrate the best acceptable causes of fratricide and booty activity to assure their soldiers. Whether acclimated for an absolute activity operation or a training event, this anticipation activity complements the troop-leading procedures and assay of METT-TC factors in planning.
b. The fratricide accident appraisal cast (Figure C-2) shows an access to appraise the about accident of fratricide for activity maneuver. To accredit a accident amount to anniversary absolute account of fratricide, brace the best analytical METT-TC accidental factors associated with anniversary cause. For anniversary primary cause, favorable altitude advance to a bottom accident value, activate in the corpuscle on the larboard ancillary of the agnate sub-matrix. As a accidental agency becomes unfavorable, accident increases. The affliction arrangement for anniversary affectionate of fratricide is represented by the accident amount in the corpuscle on the adapted ancillary of the sub-matrix. Figure C-2 is an archetype of a fratricide accident appraisal cast that should be acclimated in assessing every mission. For a abundant account of how to use this matrix, accredit to Handbook No. 92-3, Fratricide Accident Appraisal for Aggregation Leadership, Area II, Fratricide Accident Assessment.
c. Accident identification charge be conducted at all levels during anniversary phase. The after-effects charge be acutely announced up and bottomward the alternation of command so accident appraisal can begin. The afterward paragraphs awning considerations influencing accident identification and focus on measures the baton can apparatus to accomplish the identification activity added able and advice anticipate affable blaze incidents from occurring.
DRAFT Figure C-2. Sample format, fratricide accident appraisal matrix.
A thoroughly developed, acutely communicated, and absolutely accepted plan helps abbreviate fratricide risk. The afterward factors affect the abeyant for fratricide in a accustomed operation:
Graphics are a basal apparatus commanders at all levels use to analyze their intent, add attention to their concept, and acquaint their plan to subordinates. Cartoon can be a actual advantageous apparatus in abbreviation the accident of fratricide. Anniversary administrator charge accept the definitions and purposes of operational cartoon and the techniques of their employment. (See FM 101-5-1 for the definitions of anniversary blazon of clear ascendancy measure.)
Confirmation briefs and rehearsals are primary accoutrement for anecdotic and abbreviation fratricide accident during the alertness phase. The afterward are considerations for their use:
a. Acceptance briefs and rehearsals ensure subordinates apperceive area fratricide risks abide and what to do to abate or annihilate them.
b. Briefbacks ensure subordinates accept the commander’s intent. They generally highlight areas of abashing or complication or planning errors.
During execution, in-stride accident appraisal and acknowledgment can affected abrupt fratricide accident situations.
b. Maintaining an acquaintance of the COP at all levels and at all times is addition key to fratricide abridgement as an operation progresses. Units advance and apply able techniques and SOPs to aid leaders and soldiers in this process, including—
The afterward measures accommodate a adviser to accomplishments that can abate fratricide risk. Use of these measures is not required, nor are they advised to bind initiative. Administer them as adapted based on the specific bearings and METT-TC factors:.
a. Analyze and appraise abeyant fratricide risks in the appraisal of the situation. Express these risks in the OPORD or FRAGO.
b. Maintain acquaintance of the accepted situation, absorption on areas such as accepted intelligence, assemblage locations and dispositions, abnegation areas (minefields and scatterable munitions), attenuated areas such as bigger accepted ammunition (ICM) and NBC, SITREPs, and METT-TC factors.
c. Ensure absolute ambition identification. Assay agent and weapon ID identification cards. Apperceive at what ranges and beneath what altitude absolute identification of affable cartage and weapons is possible.
d. Authorize a command altitude that stresses fratricide prevention. Accomplish fratricide blockage measures and accent the use of doctrinally complete tactics, techniques, and procedures. Ensure connected administration in the beheading of orders and the achievement of all tasks and missions to standard.
e. Recognize the signs of battlefield stress. Maintain assemblage accord by demography quick, able activity to allay it.
f. Conduct individual, leader, and aggregate (unit) training accoutrement fratricide awareness, ambition identification and recognition, and blaze discipline.
g. Advance a simple, absolute plan.
i. Use SOPs that are connected with article to abridge mission orders. Periodically assay and change SOPs as needed.
k. Use accepted accent and cant and doctrinally actual accepted analogue and ascendancy measures, such as blaze abutment allocation line, area of engagement, and akin blaze lines.
n. Plan for allocation of command posts whenever it is adapted to the mission, such as during a access of lines.
q. Accommodate fratricide accident as a key agency in area assay (observation, avenues of approach, key terrain, ascertainment and fields of fire, awning and beard [OAKOC]).
s. Be in the adapted abode at the adapted time. Use position area and aeronautics accessories (GPS and position aeronautics [POSNAV]); apperceive your area and the locations of adjoining units (left, right, leading, and follow-on) through use of FBCB2 and added means. Synchronize adapted movement.
t. Plan and abrupt OPSEC, abnormally back utilizing dismounted operations (challenge and password, assurance and countersign).
v. Ensure blaze commands are accurate, concise, and acutely stated. Accomplish it binding for soldiers to ask for description of any allocation of the blaze command that they do not absolutely understand.
w. Accent the accent of the alternation of command in the blaze ascendancy process; ensure soldiers get in the addiction of accepting ambition acceptance and permission to blaze from their leaders afore agreeable targets they accept are adversary elements.
Figure C-3, parallels the five-paragraph OPORD and contains key factors and considerations in fratricide prevention. This is not a change to the OPORD format, but is a adviser for use during OPORD development to ensure fratricide blockage measures are included. It is not a austere directive. The factors and considerations are listed area they would acceptable arise in the OPORD, but they may accreditation appraisal during alertness of added paragraphs.
DRAFT Figure C-3. Fratricide blockage checklist.
DRAFT Figure C-3. Fratricide blockage account (continued).
DRAFT Figure C-3. Fratricide blockage account (continued).
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